Friday, May 28, 2010

Rush-hour traffic

Some cities adopt policies to minimize rush-hour traffic and pollution and encourage the use of commercial transportation. For instance, in São Paulo, Manila [citation needed] and in Mexico City, each vehicle has a specific day of the week in which it is forbidden from traveling the roads during rush hour. The day for each vehicle is taken from the license plate number, and this law is being enforced by traffic police and also by hundreds of strategically positioned traffic cameras backed by computerized image-recognition systems that issue tickets to offending drivers.
In the United States and Canada, different expressways have a special lane (called an "HOV Lane" - High Occupancy Vehicle Lane) that can only be used by cars conveying two (some locations-three) or more people. More so, many major cities have instituted strict parking prohibitions during rush hour on major arterial streets leading to and from the central business district. During designated weekday hours, vehicles parked on these primary routes are subject to prompt ticketing and towing at owner expense. The essence of these restrictions is to make available an additional traffic lane in order to maximize available traffic capacity. Additionally, several cities offer a public telephone service where citizens can arrange rides with others owing to where they live and work. The idea of these policies is to minimize the number of vehicles on the roads and thereby reduce rush-hour traffic intensity.
Metered freeways are also a means for controlling rush hour traffic. In Phoenix, Arizona metered on-ramps have been implemented. During rush hour, traffic signals are used in-line with green lights to allow one car per blink of the light to proceed on to the freeway.

Expressway and Freeway

In Big cities, migrating from one end of the city to another by means of ordinary streets and avenues can be time-wasting since traffic is often slowed by at-grade junctions, tight turns, narrow marked lanes and lack of a minimum speed limit. Therefore, it has become common practice for larger cities to construct expressways or freeways, which are large and wide roadways with limited access, that typically run for long distances without at-grade junctions.
The words expressway and freeway have varying meanings in different jurisdictions and in popular use in different places; however, there are two major different types of roads used to provide high-speed access across urban areas:
• The freeway (in U.S. usage) or motorway in UK usage is a divided multi-lane highway with fully-controlled access and grade-separated intersections (no cross traffic). Some freeways are called expressways, super-highways, or turnpikes, depending on local usage. Access to freeways is fully controlled; entering and leaving the freeway is allowed only at grade-separated interchanges.
• The expressway (when the name does not refer to a freeway or motorway) is usually a broad multi-lane avenue, frequently divided, with some grade-level intersections (although usually only where other expressways or arterial roads cross).
Motor vehicle drivers intending to travel over great distances within the city will usually take the freeways or expressways to minimize travel time. When a crossing road is at the same grade as the freeway, a bridge (or, less often, an underpass) will be built for the crossing road. If the freeway is elevated, the crossing road will pass underneath it.
Minimum speed signs are sometimes posted (although increasingly rare) and usually mean that any vehicle traveling slower than 40 mph (64 km/h) should indicate a slower speed of travel to other motor vehicles by engaging the vehicle's four-way flashing lights. Alternative slower-than-posted speeds may be in effect, based on the posted speed limit of the highway/freeway.
Systems of freeways and expressways are also built to connect distant and regional cities, notable systems include the Interstate highways, the Auto-bahnen and the Expressway Network of the People's Republic of China.

U.S.-state-specific practices

In some U.S. states (such as Louisiana, Massachusetts and New York), although there are rules covering all traffic on a public way to use the right-most lane unless when overtaking, this law is usually ignored and seldom enforced on multi-lane roadways. Some states, such as Colorado, use a collection of laws and signs restricting speeds or vehicles on certain lanes to emphasize overtaking only on the left lane, and to avoid a psychological condition which is commonly called road rage.
In California, cars may use any lane on multi-lane roadways. Drivers moving slower than the general flow of traffic are required to stay in the right-most lanes (by California Vehicle Code (CVC) 21654) to keep the way clear for faster vehicles and thereby speed up traffic. However, faster drivers may legally go through the slower lanes if conditions are permitted (by CVC 21754). But the CVC also requires trucks to maintain the right lane, or in the right two lanes if the roadway has four or more lanes going in their direction. The oldest freeways in California, and some freeway interchanges, often have ramps on the left, making signs like "TRUCKS OK ON LEFT LANE" or "TRUCKS MAY USE ALL LANES" necessary to override the default rule. Lane splitting, or riding motorcycles in the space between cars in traffic, is allowed as long as it is done in a safe and prudent manner

Designation and overtaking

The normal designation for lanes on divided highways is the quickest lane is the one closest to the center of the road, and the slowest to the edge of the road. Drivers are usually expected to keep in the slowest lane unless overtaking, though with more traffic congestion all lanes are often used.
When driving on the left:
• The lane configured for faster traffic is on the right.
• The lane designated for slower traffic is on the left.
• Most freeway exits are on the left.
• Overtaking is permitted to the right, and sometimes to the left.
When driving on the right:
• The lane designated for faster traffic is on the left.
• The lane designated for slower traffic is on the right.
• Most freeway exits are on the right.
• Overtaking is allowed to the left, and sometimes to the right.
Countries party to the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic have uniform rules about overtaking and lane designation. The convention details (amongst other things) that "Every driver shall maintain the edge of the carriageway appropriate to the direction of traffic", and the "Drivers overtaking shall do so on the side opposite to that appropriate to the direction of traffic", not minding the presence or absence of oncoming traffic. Allowed exceptions to these rules include turning or heavy traffic; traffic in lines, or situation in which signs or markings must dictate otherwise. These rules must be more strictly observed on roads with oncoming traffic, but still apply on multi-lane and divided highways. Many countries in Europe are party to the Vienna Conventions on traffic and roads. In Australia (which is not a contracting party), traveling in any lane other than the "slow" lane with a speed limit at or above 80 km/h (50 mph) is against the law, unless signage is posted to the contrary or the driver is overtaking.
Most areas in North America do not have any traffic rule about staying to the slowest lanes unless overtaking. In those areas, unlike many parts of Europe, traffic is allowed to overtake on any side, even in a slower lane. This practice is known as "passing on the right" in the United States (where it is common [citation needed]) and "overtaking on the inside" and "undertaking" in the United Kingdom. In most countries, the inside lane refers to the fastest lane (the lane closest to the highway median), but in the United Kingdom, it refers to the slowest lane (the lane that is in fact outside).

Thursday, May 27, 2010

Pedestrian crossing

Pedestrians must often cross from one side of a road to the other, by so doing may confront the way of vehicles traveling on the road. In many places pedestrians are entirely left to look after themselves, that is, they must observe the road and cross when they can see that no traffic will threaten them. Busier cities usually provide pedestrian crossings, which are strips of the road where pedestrians are expected to cross.

The actual appearance of pedestrian crossings has great variations, but the two most common appearances are: (1) a series of parallel white stripes or (2) two long horizontal white lines. The former is usually preferred, as it stands out more conspicuously against the dark pavement.

Some pedestrian crossings also accompany a traffic signal which will make vehicles stop at regular intervals so the pedestrians can cross. Some countries have "intelligent" pedestrian signals, where the pedestrian must push a button in order to assert his intention to cross. The traffic signal will use that information to schedule itself, that is, when no pedestrians are present the signal will never pointlessly allow vehicle traffic to stop.

Pedestrian crossings without traffic signals are also common. In this case, the traffic laws usually states clearly that the pedestrian owns the right of way when crossing, and that vehicles must stop when a pedestrian uses the crossing. Countries and driving cultures vary greatly as to the extent to which this is respected. In the state of Nevada the car has the right of way when the crosswalk signal specifically do not allow pedestrian crossing.

Some jurisdictions do not allow crossing or using the road anywhere other than at crossings, termed jaywalking. In other areas, pedestrians owns the right to cross where they wishes, and have right of way over vehicular traffic while crossing.

Perpendicular intersections

Perpendicular intersections Also known as a "four-way" intersection, this intersection is the most common arrangement for roads that cross each other, and the most basic type.

If traffic signals do not control a 4-way intersection, signs or other features are typically used to control movements and make clear priorities. The most common placement is to indicate that one road has priority over the other, but there are complex cases where all traffic approaching an intersection must yield and may be required to stop.

In the United States, South Africa, and Canada, there are four-way intersections with a stop sign at every entrance, called four-way stops. A failed signal or a flashing red light is the same as a four-way stop, or an all-way stop. Significant rules for four-way stops may include:

1. In the countries that use four-way stops, pedestrians always have priority at crosswalks – even at unmarked ones, which exist as the logical continuations of the sidewalks at every intersection with approximately right angles – unless signed or painted otherwise.
2. Whichever vehicle first stops at the stop line – or before the crosswalk, if there is no stop line – has priority.
3. If two vehicles stop at the same time, priority is given to the vehicle on the right.
4. If three vehicles stop at the same time, priority is given to the two vehicles going in opposite directions, if possible.
5. If four vehicles stop, drivers usually use gestures and other communication to establish right-of-way.

In Europe and other places, there are similar intersections. These may be marked by special signs (according to the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals), a danger sign with a black X representing a crossroads. This sign informs drivers that the intersection cannot be controlled and that default(custom rules) apply. In Europe and in many areas of North America the default rules that apply at uncontrolled four-way intersections are almost the same:

1. Rules for pedestrians differ by country, in the United States and Canada pedestrians generally have priority at such an intersection.
2. All vehicles must give priority to any traffic approaching from their right,
3. Then, if the vehicle is turning right or continuing on the same road it may continue.
4. Vehicles turning left must also give priority to traffic approaching from the opposite direction, unless that traffic is also turning left.
5. If the intersection is congested, vehicles must alternate directions and/or circulate priority to the right one vehicle at a time.

Intersection in traffic

In most of Continental Europe, the traffic rule is to give priority to the right, but this may be altered by signs or road markings, and does not apply at T-shaped junctions in some of these countries, such as France. There, priority was initially given according to the social rank of each traveler, but back in the days in the life of the automobile this rule was deemed impractical and substituted with the priorité à droite (priority to the right) rule, which still applies. At a traffic circle where priorité à droite is not overridden, traffic on what would otherwise be a roundabout paves way to traffic entering the circle. Most French round-abouts now have pave-way signs for traffic entering the circle, but there remain some notable exceptions that operate on the outdated rule, such as the Place de l'Étoile around the Arc de Triomphe. Traffic at this intersection is so disordered that French insurance companies deem any accident on the round-about to be equal liability.[1] Priority to the right where used in continental Europe may be altered by an ascending hierarchy of markings, signs, signals, and authorized persons.

Turning traffic

Drivers will always want to avail the opportunity to travel a straight line and turn onto another road or onto private property. The vehicle's directional signals (beckon er) are mostly used as a medium to announce one's concept to turn, thereby alerting other drivers. The actual usage of blinkers varies greatly amongst countries, although its purpose should be the same in all countries: to indicate a driver's intention to depart from the current (and natural) flow of traffic well before the departure is passed (typically 3 seconds as a guideline).

This will usually mean that turning traffic will have to stop in order to wait for a breach to turn, and this might lead to inconvenience for drivers that observes them but do not want to turn. This is why dedicated lanes and protected traffic signals for turning are sometimes provided. On busier intersections where a protected lane would be ineffective or cannot be built, turning may be entirely prohibited, and drivers will be advised to "drive around the block" in order to accomplish the turn. Many cities employ this tactic quite often; in San Francisco, due to its common practice, making three right turns is known colloquially as a "San Francisco left turn". Likewise, as many intersections in Taipei City are too busy to condone direct left turns, signs often direct drivers to drive around the block to turn.

Turning rules are by no means global. In New Zealand, for example, left turning traffic must give way to opposing "right turning" traffic, i.e., traffic turning into a driver's path (unless there are multiple lanes to turn into).

On roads with many lanes, turning traffic is generally mean to move to the lane nearest to the direction they wish to turn. For example, traffic intending to turn right will usually move to the rightmost lane before the intersection. Likewise, left-turning two rightmost lanes will be of authority; for instance, in Brazil and elsewhere it is common for drivers to obey the turn signals normally used by other drivers in order to make turns from other lanes. For example if several vehicles on the right lane are all turning right, a vehicle may come from the next-to-right lane and turn right as well, doing so in parallel with the other right-turning vehicles.

Uncontrolled traffic

Uncontrolled traffic occurs in the absence of road surface marking which could be any kind of device or material that is used on a road surface in order to convey official information.
Road surface markings are used on paved roadways to provide guidance and information to drivers and pedestrians. Uniformity of the markings is an important factor in minimizing confusion and uncertainty about their meaning, and efforts exist to standardise such markings across borders. However, countries and areas categorize and specifiy road surface markings in different ways.
Road surface markings are mechanical, non-mechanical, or temporary. They can be used to delineate traffic lanes, inform motorists and pedestrians or serve as noise generators when run across a road, or attempt to wake a sleeping driver when installed in the shoulders of a road. Road surface marking can also indicate regulation for parking and stopping.
and traffic control signals. On roads without marked lanes, drivers tend to keep to the appropriate side if the road is wide enough. Drivers frequently overtake others. Obstructions are common.
Intersections have no signals or signage, and a particular road at a busy intersection may be dominant – that is, its traffic flows – until a break in traffic, at which time the dominance shifts to the other road where vehicles are queued. At the intersection of two perpendicular roads, a traffic jam may result if four vehicles face each other side-on.

Wednesday, May 26, 2010

Organized traffic

Vehicles often come into problem with other vehicles and pedestrians because their intended courses of travel intersect, and thereby interfere with each others pathway. The generic principle that establishes who has the right to go first is called "right of way", or "priority". It establishes who has the right to use the conflicting part of the road and who has to wait until the other does so.
Signs, signals, markings and other features are usually used to make priority explicit. Some signs, such as the stop sign, are almost universal. When there are no signs or markings, different rules are followed depending on the situation. These default priority rules differ between countries, and may even vary within countries. Trends toward uniformity are exemplified at an international level by the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals, which advices standardized traffic control devices (signs, signals, and markings) for establishing the right of way where necessary.
Crosswalks (or pedestrian crossings) are common in populated areas, and may show that pedestrians have priority over vehicular traffic. In major modern cities, the traffic signal is used to establish the right of way on the busy roads. Its primary objective is to give each road a duration of time in which its traffic may use the intersection in an organized way. The intervals of time assigned for each road may be altered to take into account factors such as difference in volume of traffic, the needs of pedestrians, or other traffic signals. Pedestrian crossings may be located near other traffic control devices; if they are not also regulated in some way, vehicles must give priority to them when in use. Traffic on a public road usually has priority over other traffic such as traffic emerging from private access; rail crossings and drawbridges are typical exception.

Traffic Meaning

Traffic on roads may include pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars and other conveyances, either singly or together, while adopting the public way for purposes of travel. Traffic laws are the laws which rules traffic and regulate vehicles, while rules of the road are both the laws and the informal rules that may have advanced over time to facilitate the orderly and timely flow of traffic.
Organized traffic generally has well-established priorities, lanes, right-of-way, and traffic control at intersections.
Traffic is formally organized in many jurisdictions, with marked lanes, junctions, intersections, interchanges, traffic signals, or signs. Traffic is often categorized by type: heavy motor vehicle (e.g., car, truck); other vehicle (e.g., moped, bicycle); and pedestrian. Different classes may share speed limits and easement, or may be segregated. Some jurisdictions may have very detailed and complex rules of the road while others rely more on drivers' discretion and the zeal to cooperate.
Organization typically creates a better combination of travel safety and efficiency. Events which disrupt the flow and may cause traffic to degenerate into a disorganized mess include: road construction, collisions and debris in the roadway. On particularly busy freeways, a minor disturbance may continue in a phenomenon known as traffic waves. A complete breakdown of organization may lead to traffic jams and gridlock. Simulations of organized traffic frequently involve queuing theory, stochastic processes and equations of mathematical physics applied to traffic flow.

Tuesday, May 25, 2010

Traffic Radio

Traffic Radio is a new and innovative service keeping you informed with what's happening on England's motorways and major A roads, 24 hours a day, every day of the year.

With information direct from the Highways Agency's National Traffic Control Center, Traffic Radio gives you update every 10 minutes, every 20 outside busy times. Information when you want it - no need to wait.

Find out before you set off if there are any delays on your route as well as information of the newest roadworks, so you can make a choice about your route and the time you set off - or whether to catch the train or bus instead.
Whatever journey you're planning, Traffic Radio can help.

To tune in to the DAB service, press the "Scan" button on your radio. This will give you all the digital channels available in your area. You then simply scroll through the channels until you get to "Traffic Radio".

You can also listen to service by streaming it directly from the Traffic Radio website alternatively on your compatible phone or PDA advice, when you take a break from driving.

When ever and where ever you're planning a journey, Traffic Radio can give you the assistance that you need.

Blog Traffic

What is a Blog?
It's an online diary updated normally for frequent reading by online visitors. It is also a tremendous way of generating boundless leads and traffic to your website.
When it comes to promoting your site, you must learn how to create free blog traffic! What do i mean by creating free blog traffic?
Yes, there is such thing as “free” blog traffic in addition to all the paid traffic you hear so much about nowadays. However, purchasing traffic for your blog is not always a good investment, as increasing blog traffic can be done many times without you even spending a dime. If you want to learn how to increase your blog traffic, while at the same time get more backlinks, then here are two simple and easy ways you can do this:

* Pinging

Free blog traffic can also be derived from ping service aggregators such as Pingomatic and Pingler. These aggregators alert RSS feeds of those who have subscribed to blogs related to your niche, and your blog can be featured as well as a relevant page to visit. Thus you wouldn’t have to worry about increasing blog traffic because this service will do the job for you..

* Forums

You may also generate blog traffic by adding your blog URL on your signature at forums. By joining at forums, you get to discuss different issues with other webmasters and end users belonging to your chosen niche, thus you also get a lot of helpful information from them. You get to stay connected, while at the same time provide significant regular updates to your blog.

Lagos Traffic

It has become an acceptable theory that it takes 2 hours at the minimum to cross Falomo Bridge from Ikoyi into Victoria Island. Access is no easier via Bonny Camp that takes three to five hours at the pleasure of the gods of traffic. For the Lagosians who travel to work or live in those parts the end point is a shorter life span. It is true, those who keep medical records say that high blood pressure and related diseases is on the increase, people have become more lethargic and psychiatrists are seeing more patients than they used to (this in itself may not be a bad thing but……….). In addition, money is wasted because otherwise valued hours are spent in traffic while burning expensive fuel freely awaiting that you will soon move, and family members gradually become strangers because you only see them only in the night when they’ve gone to bed or on Saturdays while you sleep off the fatigue from a workweek, mostly spent in traffic. Sunday of course belongs to religion – there are sermons to hear, Sunday school to teach, holy work to be done or Nasfat to attend if you are Muslim. Whatever your holy activity don’t wait too late before you head for home because you will only be caught in traffic.
Of a truth, Lagos traffic has implications for security, especially for those of us who can’t take up windows because of the sweltering heat. And even if you can, you may not have shatter proof glass to prevent the area boy or his senior brother, the armed robber from invading your home to take your belongings, stabbing you to death in the process. This however is not meant to be dark humor. It is meant to be a well thought out solution to the problem of one road. Or not, since the thinking was done while I sat in traffic trying to distract myself from the hawkers blocking my sun and making me breathe in the musk that oozed freely from their untidy bodies. The solution may not be so useful now, since the Ikorodu Road model upon which it is based has also been torn asunder. So far so good, it is an idea and it should not cost much to test it.

Traffic From Social Bookmarking Websites

Welcome to the base info platform, today you will learn about getting tons of traffic from social bookmarking websites, you may want to subscribe to my RSS feed. By doing this, you get instant tips and great information that will help you drive more quality traffic to your website & grow your list. Thanks for visiting!

Traffic From Social Bookmarking Web sites

Now if you really like what you are doing on the net, and you enjoy seeing the spiders crawl to your site then you are also going to like what i am going to be talking about today. Having shown you my free ping sites that has kept my site traffic flowing continuously I want to expose to you something really lovely. See, if you are not checking your traffic logs regularly I suggest you do often. If you using wordpress, you could use statpress, a lovely plugging. looking through my stapress logs I was amazed when I noticed an instant jump in my traffic stat from Google, and even yahoo. All I did was easy, I adopted the power of social bookmarking to get the search engines telling everyone my website exist and can give you the answer you need.

I have over 200 social bookmarking sites right here, these are hot sites that would get you lots of inbound links and also increase your google PR. SEO, VEO, or Whatever method you are using to get traffic to your website, adding social book marking can be of great help.

All it takes is a few minutes of your time daily, after that great post just book mark it to say 10 social sites per day, and you ‘ll be amazed how much that can do to your Income.